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Sporozoa, Parasitic Protozoans
Parasites producing spores which are infective causing different kinds of diseases due to these spores. Depending of the types of spores that are produced or the infective cells that get released from these spores they are again divided into different sub-phyla.
Sporpzoans are mostly found as endo-parasites which show mostly complex life-cycles. These are named because of the spores that are produced which infectious. Most of the cases the infection causing sporozoans cannot be find engulfed with spores and can be many times find free flowing without any locomotory organs and as elongated bodies. The digestive system which is well studied lead to know somany features of these organisms and by knowing these features they can be also named as Apicomplexa which is not found much important because the name sporozoa is well popular and understood to all classes.
All the sporozoans are particularly parasites which cause diseases in human beings and animals at different stages of their lifecycles. Most popularly we can see diseases like Malaria, Coccidoisis, Red-water fever etc., are some of the diseases we can see in animals as well as human beings that can even lead to the death of the patients.
These parasites spend half of their life time in humans then half of theirs in mosquitoes or other hosts which act as their survival sources. Sporozoans are protozoans which are small diverse acellular or unicellular orgaisms which mostly are non-photosynthetic organisms.
Mostly found sporozoan parasites which cause Malaria in human beings are Plasmodium species. They include Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. Plasmodium falciparum is more dangerous when compared to the other species. These parasites are infected into the blood of human beings by mosquito bites through the saliva of the mosquito as the sporozites of these parasites filled with in the salivary glands. These sporozoites grow fast and enter the paranchymal cells of liver where they develop into liver-stage schizonts. Afterwards they burst releasing merozoites in vast number which mix with the blood. These merozoites can take 1 or 2 years of time to mature sometimes and each merozoite can infect a red blood corpuscle. These merozoites develop into more matured forms of gametocytes which are the sexual stage of these parasites. Fever and chill is experienced by the patient who gets infected with these erythrocystic stage of schizonts. Particularly in malaria that is caused by Paramecium falciparum due to the infection red cells may obstruct capllaries and post capillary venules. This obstruction leads to local hypoxia and which results in the release of toxic cellular products. If these obstructions occur in the microcirculation in the brain which can be called as cerebral malaria leads to severe complications and can also result into the death of the patient.
The gametocytes enter into the blood stream and develop into male and female gametes. Male and female gametes together form diploid zygotes by fusion. They development into ookinetes which are more active and they get penetrated into the midgut wall of the mosquito and form into oocysts. After the development these oocysts get divided into haploid forms which are called sporozoites. After 10 to 15 days these oocysts get burst and release the sporozoites into the body cavity of the mosquito from which they again travel towards the salivary glands of the mosquitoes and again enter into the human bodies when these mosquitoes bite. Thus the lifecycle gets recycled again and again in the malaria parasite.